Mockernut Hickory, Carya tomentose, is a medium to large, deciduous, nut bearing tree. It has rounded crown with thick foliage and usually grows 20 to 25 meters tall, with a straight trunk, up to 0.7 meters in diameter, with dark gray bark, furrows and flattened ridges. Mockernut Hickory is native to North America, mostly found in the eastern and central US. It grows in mixed forest with other trees and plants including: Oaks, Pines, Sassafras, Maples, Sumac, American Elm, Wild Grapes, Honeysuckle, Blueberries, Witch Hazel, Goldenrods and with other Hickories (Shagbark Hickory and Pignut Hickory).
Carya tomentose leaves are compound, dark yellowish-green, 15-30cm long with 5-7 aromatic serrated leaflets, 7-14cm long, with downy and glandular undersides. Flowers are Insignificant, yellowish-green. Male flowers appear on drooping long catkins and the female on short spikes. They are followed by rounded nuts. However, trees will not fruit until they reach about 25 years old.
Mockernut Hickory Nuts
Mockernut Hickory nuts are encased in a thick, four-grooved husk, 3-5cm long, with round or pear like shape. The husk splits open in fall when ripe. Nuts are edible for humans but can be very difficult to extract from the husks, they are also eaten by a variety of mammals including squirrels, chipmunks, raccoons and black bears. Large trees can produce considerable litter through fruit (nut) and leaf drop.
Mockernut Hickory Propagation Methods
Plant propagation is by seed (nuts). Animals help disperse seeds so that new hickories can grow elsewhere. Mockernut Hickory grows on a variety of soils including wet, fine loams, sandy textured soils. For Best performance the plant is grown in hummus rich, medium moisture, and well-drained soils in full sun. Generally, there are No serious insect or disease problems affecting the plant. Carya tomentose is a member of the family Juglandaceae the genus Carya.
Mockernut Hickory, Carya tomentose
Fruit and Nut Trees
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Burrawang, Macrozamia communis, is a nut bearing, primitive, palm-like shrub with aerial, cylindrical and varying height stems, persistent leaf bases and with a disproportionately thick trunk for height. Burrawang is a native of northern Australia and considered a relict plant, part of the Gondwanan flora of this country. It is a hardy plant, resistant to fire and drought, but, as a result of land clearing its distribution has been greatly reduced and it is now protected by law.
Macrozamia communis leaves are palmlike, pinnate, spirally arranged, interspersed with cataphylls and with the lower leaflets often reduced to spines. Crown with up to 150 leaves. Mature leaves blue, young leaves pubescent with branched or simple transparent hairs. Flowers and fruit are borne in cones on separate male and female plants. Pollen is distributed by the wind, but water is a requirement of fertilization as the males have swimming sperm.
The female cone develops fruit which is attached to spikes. Burrawang fruit contains a nut that has been used by aborigines traditionally as a food article. However, the nut can be eaten only after it is made safe by processing, in a number of ways. After processing, Burrawang nut has a savory flavor reminiscent of mild cheese.
Burrawang Nut Propagation Methods
Plant propagation is by seed. Cropping of Burrawang is a long-term proposition due to the plants very slow growth. Macrozamia communis is a member of the family Zamiaceae genus Macrozamia
Burrawang, Macrozamia communis
Fruit and Nut Trees
Cape Nutmeg, Horsfieldia Australiana, also known as Nutmeg Tree is a tropical evergreen tree, native to northern Australia and New Guinea. The plant can grow 10-20 meters tall, has a slightly buttressed base, brown closely creviced bark and a dense
Horsfieldia Australiana leaves are arranged in two vertical rows on opposite sides of the stem. They are glossy green above, when new, but dull and paler beneath. Leaf veins obscure on the upper surface, but strongly rose on the lower. Flowers are small, rounded, numerous, 2–2.5 mm long, 2.2–2.5 mm wide, mostly with short flower stems. Female flowers are slightly larger than male.
Cape Nutmeg Fruit
Cape Nutmeg fruit is edible, ellipsoidal shaped, 4cm long and 2.5cm wide, green early on with a yellowish pericarp when ripe. Fruit splits when ripe to expose an orange to red aril totally covering a single white seed (nut). The white kernel of the fruit is eaten raw or roasted. The nut has a coconut like taste.
Cape Nutmeg Propagation Methods
Cape Nutmeg propagation is by seed. The plant requires a deep, well drained soil and ample moisture. As a dioecious species, it needs both male and female forms to be grown if fruit and seed are required. It has being grown commercially for its seed (nut) in northern Australia. Horsfieldia Australiana is a member of the Myristicaceae family the genus Horsfieldia.
Cape Nutmeg, Horsfieldia Australiana
Fruit and Nut Trees
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Ozark chinkapin, Castanea ozarkensis, is a deciduous nut bearing tree, growing to 20 meters in height and attaining a trunk diameter of up to 1 meter under ideal conditions. It is a cousin of the chestnut tree and a native to eastern North America of the Southern Appalachian belt. Most of the Ozark chinkapin trees have succumbed to the Chestnut Blight (trees usually develop the blight after 5-6 years) and with only stumps remaining that stay on bearing fruit yearly. Likely, there is an active foundation working to re-establish the tree once again.
Castanea ozarkensis leaves are 12-22 cm in length, up to 5 cm wide, simple, alternate, elliptical, sharp coarsely serrated, green to yellow-green and hairless on top. The leaf’s underside is paler with a downy appearance and with tiny cream color hairs. Leaves turn yellow in the fall.
Flowers are small, yellowish, bundled into a spike known as a catkin and can be fetid smelling. Male flowers occur in slender erect spikes 20 cm in length. Female flowers are less conspicuous and occur below male flowers of some spikes or in shorter, groupings of female spikes.
The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Insects. The tree is in flower in early summertime, and the seeds ripen in autumn.
Ozark chinkapin Nuts
Ozark chinkapin nuts are protected by lean, hairy, 2 cm spines that form a protective nut bur. These burs average 4-5 cm in diameter and occur in clusters of 5-20. In autumn the burs split into 2-6 segments, freeing a brown, single, solitary, round, delicious nut. The nuts vary in size from 2 cm to 4 cm in diameter depending on conditions. They may be small but very tasty. They are eaten raw or cooked.
Ozark chinkapin Propagation Methods
Plant propagation is by seed and from old tree stumps. The plant prefers a good well-drained slightly acid loam but also does well in dry soils. Once established, it is very drought tolerant and thrives in areas with hot summers. Generally the trees grow on acidic rocky cherty soils. It hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Castanea ozarkensis is a member of the Fagaceae family the genus Chestnut.
Ozark chinkapin, Castanea ozarkensis
Fruit and Nut Trees
Argan, Argania spinosa, also known as Moroccan ironwood, is a thorny evergreen, nut bearing tree, native to semi-desert Quet Sous valley of south-western Morocco, between Essaouira and Agadir, and to the Algerian region of Tindouf in the western Mediterranean region. Argan trees grow up to 10 meters tall and capable of living for more than 200 years. The plant is a non-cultivated forest tree, in its native land, but when in cultivation it requires no special attention.
Argania spinosa has a stubby, often twisted and covered with knobs and knots trunk. Leaves are small, 2–4 cm long, oval and with a rounded apex. The Argan leaves have a high concentration of polyphenols, known for their anti-free radical properties and for the prevention of skin aging. Flowers are small, with five pale yellow-green petals.
Argan Fruit and Nuts
The fruit of the Argan tree is green with fleshy exterior similar to that of the olive but larger and rounder. Inside the fruit, there is a nut with an extremely hard shell, which in turn contains one, two or three almond-shaped kernels that contain highly esteemed oil (argan oil). Each nut has to be cracked open to remove the kernels. Seeds are pressed to obtain the expensive and highly useful oil in cooking and cosmetic industry, Fruit takes over a year to mature.
Argan oil is much like olive oil, slightly darker with a reddish tinge but with similar fat content. It can be used for cooking and is claimed to have various medicinal properties. It is rich in vitamin E, natural squalane, phytosterols and essential fatty acids.
Argan oil contains:
• 45% Oleic acid
• 28% Alpha-linolenic acid
• 13% Palmitic acid
• 6% Stearidonic acid
• 5% Linoleic acid
• 3% Myristic acid
Residue from the kernels, after oil extraction, a thick chocolate-colored paste called “amlou“, similar to that of peanut butter in flavor is commonly sweetened and served as a dip or spread at breakfast time.
Argania spinosa is the perfect plant for a harsh environment as it is highly tolerant and well adapted to extreme drought, high heat, and poor soil conditions. Argan trees serve a dual purpose, were they naturally grow; animal fodder oil production. Foliage and the fruit pulp is often used as food for farm animals.
Argan Propagation Methods
Plant propagation is by seed. The tree needs full sun and lime rich soil. The plant is considered to be a Tertiary relic species. Argania spinosa is a member of the family Sapotaceae the genus Argania.
Argan, Argania spinosa, Moroccan ironwood
Fruit and Nut Trees